antennae and the tail,crappy relationship,literally !!

Newbie divers, pause a moment to observe the goby and shrimp when you are diving in a sandy environment, it can turn out to be a intriguing observation.

Partners,housemates ,or more accurately ,burrowmates.

These critters have a quaint relationship between them.

Both in a , whats termed as a symbiotic coexistence, in layman

terms it just means they basically are in a mutually agreeable partnership where both look after each other's interets.

Its fascinating to watch,this ongoing partnership in motion and intriguing as well ,especially to watch the shrimp in action doing its part to maintain the relationship.

If there is one thing that is very often overlooked it is the sight of both the goby fish and the shrimp actively playing their roles underwater, its a nonstop process during daylight hours , when predators lurk about ever ready to take advantage of a potentially deadly encounter for both the fish or the shrimp if they were to let their guard down .

For divers , most times won't even give them a second thought as they swim right past them above because they are so common, typically , on sandy bottoms ,hundreds or more of these fishes can easily be spotted,on any given dive .

Actually, to better appreciate these critters, the diver need to understand the hows,wheres and whys of their behaviour and interaction with each other and when they do ,then observation of them in their environment will be enhanced.

Pause and smell the roses,as people would say in a garden.!

For the beginner diver,pause and take in the visuals.!

Whenever you are diving on sandy bottom,it is not hard to spot the goby sticking its head out from the burrow in the sand.
Next time remember to pause ,very quietly settle yourself down on the sandy bottom,choose a burrow with a goby and then with a bit of patience wait to see what will happen next.

Be very still and observe ,if the goby fish feels the coast is clear
it signals to the shrimp in the burrow and then the shrimp will continue its job of cleaning
house.Like a bull dozer,gravel that drops into the burrow will be forcefully pushed back out again and again,

Stick around few minutes and watch the cleaning by the shrimp,enchanting to watch,not only sand pebbles and gravel ,sometimes somehow the little bugger can manage to push something twice its size that has fallen into the burrow.

Do u know ,the shrimps are practically blind sensing their world with the antenae they have which it uses for comunication with the fish. linked to the tail of the goby fish,their world is limited to merely the immediate vicinity around their burrow which is like 1-2 sq meters.

If you have been observing the fish and shrimp,notice how on a high state of alert the fish is whenever the shrimp is doing its cleaning and pushing debris out of the burrow,body language of the fish,then try something,from your position just make a sudden move and see what happens.Whoosh,in a couple of split seconds,both the shrimp and the goby have disappeared into the burrow sensing a potential threat from you.!

then settle down very gently again on the sandy bottom, keeping a respectful distance so that you can see what happens next.quaint to watch.goby emerges 1st sticking its head out to see if the coast is clear,if it deems its safe ,no threat around,it gently taps the antennae of the shrimp then takes up position again on high alert while the shrimp repeats or continues where it left off cleaning the burrow,only mode of communication between them is tail and antennae.
And for all of that work,shrimp gets fed with the droppings of the goby which in turn feeds on whatever stuff that drifts past with the current.
Wages of the shrimp for all that cleanup work,FISH CRAP.!
Occasionally you may come across a burrow with more than one shrimp,2 ,3 or 4 working in tandem to clean the burrow ,and 2 gobies standing guard.gets more interesting to watch ,nice thing about it is that the shrimps come in multi colour ,gobies also.

Miracle of birth of an island

vMother Nature in her splendour and glory..

An Unusual Sight...
The yacht 'Maiken' was traveling in the South Pacific when they came across a weird sight -

looked like a sandy atoll from a distance.

But NO..! It was sand floating ON TOP of the waves..


This is not a beach, its a whole layer of

floating sand on the ocean's surface..

A sight of Biblical proportions, parting of sand ,

The trail left by the it sailed through the sand

Then..,a plume rises.,naturally curious,the yacht sailed closer

for a better view.

And witnessed this...,

Ash and steam inexplicably rising from the ocean...

And, as the sailors watched...


... From a plume of black ash

A brand new island rosed from the ocean..

Tonga volcanic eruption seen by yacht crew 08 Nov 2006, 18:07
Imagine the thrill of being the first & only people witnessing a brand new island being created , as it happens, seemingly from nowhere?

Magnificent occurence so precious and rare to witness.

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amazing flight of the one wing aircraft !

This has nothing to do with scuba diving but just couldnt resist. One wing snaps off during flight and the pilot ... just watch!!

Didnt realise planes can even fly with one wing broken off.Talk about being cool under pressure,this pilot has my full respect.Either bring plane under control or die trying.Most would have just bailed out, Superb demonstration of flying skills,fantastic life or death situation.with a awe inspiring outcome.

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reef sharks,harmless docile creatures,

For most people who are not so familiar with the ocean environment- mention the word shark and immediately flashes of a giant monster with flesh tearing sharp jagged teeth comes to mind.
Its horrific what the Jaws movie has done to the perception of the unknowing.
These dangerous creatures do exist,but even so ,are not as scary as the general impression seems to be.
Encounters with humans are rare except in controlled conditions(diver in cage and observe their feeding).
 Its not like they are constantly on the prowl ,looking for fresh human meat to jaw on ,as it were.
 Usually they are in deeper waters,nice and cool temperate waters for they are termed oceanic sharks,these sharks arent't very used to warm tropical seas.

Whereas the docile , shy reef sharks, that scuba divers commonly encounter , are the tropical dwellers.
Coral reefs are where the reef sharks thrives. for only in the warmer tropical seas that serves as the sharks natural habitat.
And they are harmless sharks, most times whenever they sense divers approaching , the instinctive response of the critters is that to  swim away to avoid the noisy bubbles from the breathing apparatus  and the scuba tanks weird unfamiliar metal electrical field they detect.

Snorkellers and scuba divers mostly dive in shallow water coral reefs so encounters or sightings of reef sharks are common.

And for the novice diver,sightings can be quite exciting, seeing a real live shark not in an aquarium but swimming close to it in their turf.
 Some get close to freaking out, especially if they haven't been told that the shark is actually more wary of the noisy entity than vice versa.
More often than not it just swims away after few minutes.
In an encounter with a free swimming reef shark,best thing is to move slow and deliberate .Sudden movement may spook the shark and it will just shoot off as fast as it could like a torpedo, divers should just keep their eyes on observing it as they glide along underwater and chances are it will stick around a bit longer circling around the divers checking them out before it decides to move on.

The whitetip reef shark is one of the most common sharks found in shallow tropical and warm temperate water around coral reefs . Snorkelers often encounter these sharks.

Most sharks need to be constantly swimming non stop because they extract oxygen they need from the water into their gills by the flow of the water as they move,other wise they may drown.

But the white tip reef shark is among the few species in the shark family with the ability to to pump water into their
gills by sucking in water so they can breath even when not moving.

As its name suggests, the tips of the shark's first dorsal fin and upper caudal fin are white. The upper body is grey/brownish. Their average length is about 140 to 160 centimetres (55 to 63 in) and the maximum reported length is 2.1 metres (6 ft 11 in).Its head is broad and flat.

The whitetip reef shark feeds on crustaceans and fish

This bottom dwelling shark is nocturnal and is often seen resting on the bottom during the day, or inside a underwater cave. Sometimes in small groups.
It is not aggressive and will generally swim away if disturbed, although it may bite if harassed.
At night it hunts among crevices in the reef.
They reproduce viviparously, ( bringing forth live young that have developed inside the body of the parent.) with one to five pups in a litter, the gestation period being at least five months. The shark's size at birth ranges from 50 centimetres (20 in) to 60 centimetres (24 in). It is estimated that this shark can live for about 25 years and it reaches maturity after about five years.

The black tip reef shark.
One of the most common sharks found in shallow (sometimes as shallow as 30 cm) water around coral reefs of Indo-Pacific waters. The water they swim in is usually between 20 and 27° C (70 to 80ยบ F). Very seldom blacktip reef sharks venture into tropical lakes and rivers far from the ocean

As its name suggests, the tips of the shark's pectoral fin and dorsal fin are black, with a white underside. Its skin is brownish in color on the top half of its body. It has been recorded at up to 2 m (6.5 ft) in length and over 99 lbs (45 kg) in weight. Its snout is blunt and rounded. The grayreef sharklooks similar, and is also common, but is distinguished by its stockier and grey body and its lack of a black tip on the dorsal fin.
Blacktips mainly go after reef fish for food, but they will also feed on rays, crustaceans, cephalopods, and other molluscs.
Like the white tip they
reproduce viviparously with 2 to 4 pups in a litter. Before giving birth, female blacktip reef sharks will incubate their young for 16 months. The pups' length at birth ranges from 33 to 52 cm.
They are lone swimmers not very social, but at times have been seen in small groups. While generally shy, they often are curious about snorkelers and scuba divers. As with most sharks, the body is bent into a sort of "S" shape when the shark feels threatened. Blacktip reef sharks are harmless unless provoked. Incidents generally involve hand feeding or spear fishing, possibly in combination with low visibility.
The blacktip is one of only a few sharks that can jump fully out of the water, a behaviour called breaching . They have also been observed surfacing to look around (spy-hopping).
Blacktip reef sharks are often the bycatch from other fisheries and are often wasted. Their populations are declining, and so are the population of many other shark species. Their fins are used for shark fin soup which is a major factor in the population decline in recent years.
They are distributed in many areas, including Indonesia, India, Arabia, China, Japan, Philippines and various other locations. They are also common in coral reefs.

As its name suggests, the brownbanded bamboo shark has brown bands along its body. The bands fade with age, much like those of the tiger shark. The whitespotted bamboo shark is greyish brown, with small white spots dotted all over its body. It also has a few large dark blotches on its back. And, like all Bamboo sharks, right above its mouth it has two barbels.
The brownbanded bamboo shark is nocturnal, meaning it is active at night, and it hides in the reef some of the time but is known to be out during the day, until night, when it comes out to feed. It eats small fish, crustaceans, and various other small sea animals. Bamboo sharks are small, sluggish bottom-feeders, and will not go after any large fish. They feed on invertebrates mostly. The whitespotted bamboo shark will eat crabs,shrimp and small fish, which it smashes before eating. They have small sharp teeth.

Bamboo sharks are oviparous which means that they lay eggs.that hatch outside the maternal body..
. A whitespotted bamboo shark egg resembles a dogfish's egg, and the embryo,can be seen inside. Bamboo sharks, and often whitespotted bamboo sharks, are used a lot for breeding, because they will usually lay eggs in captivity.

All bamboo sharks are harmless, and pose no threat to humans, while humans, on the other hand, do pose a threat to them. Most encounters between a bamboo shark and a human would probably result worse for the shark.

It can be quite a novelty for the beginner diver or snorkeller to come across sighting of reef sharks as they are swimming along. For the novices ,the natural instinct soon as they see one is off apprehension and danger,because it is a shark.
But the experienced divers know they can very much predict the behaviour of the animal knowing its totally harmless so they will be quite calm and just keep an eye on it,savouring the moment.
Remember, Reef sharks are harmless shy and docile animals to the divers,
So if you are snorkelling or scuba diving at a reef and have a chance encounter with a reef shark,consider yourself fortunate , just stay calm , and observe the creature in its natural environment, its a worthwhile experience.!

Note: It's very very rare for Reef sharks to be aggresive,although there have been documented situations involving snorkellers,and usually there lies a good reason that can explain the cause..
Provocation or defensive  or curious reaction or mistaken identity of the snorkellers swim gear..

A beginner's guide to recognition and appreciation of the marine environment.

What will you be encountering after you have completed your diving course and actually go recreational diving just like the thousands of other divers do daily all around the world.?

Scuba divers are basically divided into few categories, beginners ,advanced and the very advanced who have gone on into very specialized niches of diving.

but thats another story.

If you are in the beginner category , probably you would have less than 10 actual dives placing you in the inexperienced group. And actually puts you are among the fortunate group,because the position you are in now is in a exclusive zone of wonder , excited expectation .everything you see and experience during the next 20 or so dives will be full of adventure and excitement because all of it is still so fresh and mysterious.

What is for the diver who has performed hundreds of dives something common is not common at all to the newbie diver,the colours of the reef and the variety of the marine creatures can be mind boggling and awe inspiring.

Hold on to this mindset of wonder , never be swayed by the seasoned divers who may seem so blase by your excitement and enthusiasm whenever you see something that seems wondrous and enchanting to you underwater because it is exactly that!

Your initial foray into the blue realm exposes you to creatures weird ,colorful and enchanting all at the same time . Trick is to merely pay attention to detail in what you saw and believe it ,makes it more rewarding.Dont be content in just swimming around underwater and observing ,make an effort to memorize the colors shapes and characteristics of the fishes ,corals or anything that stikes your fancy while you are underwater. The more you can identify or recognise the more fun you will have, like a game .

You will get a dive log after your certification,use it well, inculcate a genuine curiousity of what you have seen and write it down,that way you can remember next time you see it again underwater, there are countless photographic books or journals which every dive school will have , start of with the most basic ,

The best foundation of all is to train yourself to recognise

1) at least 2 types of marine plants.. (prepare to be surprised when you

read up on this subject,it will change a lot of your preconceived notions

of the aquatic realm, reversing impressions on what you thought is a

plant is actually not and whats considered a marine animal and so on.)

2) be able to differenciate between soft corals and hard corals....

just skim through selective paragraphs which explain why the corals are hard or soft,

at least be able to understand the difference and why it is so.And try to remember the names of the most common of the hard corals,Forget about the Latin sounding scientific names,just too complicated, memorize the common name, I.E. staghorn coral, lettuce coral,blue coral etc. most books have them.

3) Be able to name at least 5 types of reef fishes...(rather than memorizing the precise

names,train your self to recognise the family grouping of the fish,much easier to identify

general characteristics,out of the thousands of fish species, there are only 10 family


So either its a wrasse or damsel or parrot etc..but if any particular fish you see intrigues you

then of course focus on finding info about it.Thats what makes it fun,

4) read up on whats an invertebrate and whats a vertebrate in the

marine environment..(this subject will give you a good grounding or platform upon which you

can determine where your interests lie and head towards that direction.

There are thousands upon thousands of critters so weird wonderful and bizare in the marine realm,one dont know where to begin to describe it. And actually its much better to not even try.

Then everytime the diver visits ,there will be a feeling of mystery and sense of the unexpected which makes it more exciting and intriguing.

It can be so rewarding to have a curiousity or interest of what lies beneath the waves. The information is freely available to anyone who really wants to know or identify what they have seen or interpret why the marine animal behaves the way it did..

And which isnt complicated at all to understand.There is the simplified form for all to enjoy.
Always dive in with an open mind,be prepared to anticipate the unexpected,
In a nutshell,just pay more attention to detail, colors and shape of the reef, memorize the thing you ve seen underwater and hit the reference book to find out what it is seen.
Ask your dive guide about the sites you will be diving in. The excitement and wonder is increased if an added element of curiousity is present.

Diver education,why its necessary to learn basic dive theory

Risk elimination. Thats what a scuba diving course is designed to do. There are people
who have the impression that all it takes is a good set of swim skills and you can go scuba diving. Just grab a scuba tank and jump in. Now that can be dangerous.Even lead to fatal mishaps.

And the irony of it is that the fatalities are so easy to prevent . Just takes a little knowledge to compliment the skills and all potential ugly incidents can be avoided.

In a way,it is that simple, without a basic knowledge of what happens to the physical body when exposed to a pressurized environment for a period of time, can lead to serious complications,in extreme cases be fatal.

Knowledge is power,and confidence to pursue a passion in the utmost of safety,no apprehension,fully prepared to have maximum enjoyment with minimum risk,when you know exactly what to do in all situations related to the activity in question.
One thing the beginner student diver will notice during the course is that almost the entire course is about safety.,all about safe diving ,1st you will learn about simple theory ,what happens within your body when you breath compressed air underwater,how it affects the body as the diver goes deeper,how to control and prevent injury by your diving profile.What may happen if certain procedures are not followed . What the diver should and can do, what will certainly lead to injury.

In a nutshell,if the diving theory is learned and the practical beginner skills are mastered during the brief training period ,then there is absolutely no reason why the activity will not be enjoyed.
And the best part of it all is ,it is actually very easy to pick up. What needs to be known is that the course materials are actually designed in consideration of the minimum age group of 12 year olds.They basically learn the same things as the adults.

So unless the student has some form of mental disability,there is no reason at all why they will not be able to understand the dive theory part.
Its the ability to reconcile the basic knowledge of diver safety and inwater skills that produces a safe diver.Both interrelated, practical skills plays a more determining role actually in the making of a safety conscious scuba diver.
All the skills learned during the water sessions are directly relevant to the dive theory.
The role of the dive instructor is to explain each inwater skill and why it needs to be practiced. And the student can relate to the skills if they have done their part and absorbed the theory beforehand.

3 main segments in an average diver course for beginners.
Theory part comprising videos and simple quizzes in written form which has exactly the same material presented visually in video format to reinforce whats already absorbed.Videos show footage of what exactly the student will be learning when they venture into the water.

The second segment called confined water training. Learning underwater skills and getting familiar with basic dive gear in a very controlled environment. Either in a pool or shallow water off a beach.

Then third segment are the open water dives,where the student practices the skills they ve learned in a real ocean environment but dive sites carefully selected ensuring the student can apply the skills learned. Depth restrictions and environmental considerations play a major part in this process.

When all goes smoothly as planned,all requirements are met,then instructor will sign off the student certifying them as a entry level diver which comes with certain limitations as to where and what type of environments they are trained to dive at.
Training system is also all about dive safety.Beginner divers are trained to dive in less challenging environments,and their training will equip them with all they need for it,no more no less,and as they gain more experience, dive skills improve,they can progress into a continuing diver education course where they will be trained for the more challenging sites.
A stepladder system of diver education,where if the diver has the passion,can trained himself all the way into a full fledged professional,which in turn qualifies them to train up other divers.
Recreational diving, thats the operative word.And the combination of basic inwater skills and dive theory knowledge empowers you to be able to maximize the fun factor in a safe and highly enjoyable manner.
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The underwater realm,creatures weird and wonderful

long snout seahorse.

crown of thorns,predator of corals,

worm..? yes.! christmas tree worm..marine worm that burrows into a coral and lives on the coral ..feeding on whatever the sea currents brings ,mainly plankton.

this is what an underwater snail looks like...nudibranch,means ;naked gills;
or a snail without a shell, hence naked.!

another form of nudibranch,soft variety,beautiful clors are an advertisement of toxic skin,fishes stay away beacuse of the toxins.mainly feed on hydroids,a form of
coral related to the jellyfish,with sting and all,

a crab, rather spider crab..,can easily explain why its namesake..tiny creature,down to its size,also similar to a land spider.

lionfis,another exhibitionist underwater realm,it spreads out its wings to tell other predators not to mess with it because it has toxic spines.

master of camouflage..peacock flounder,just wiggles a bit and it conceals itself in the sandy bottom,only a very sharp eye can detect it is there.usually only can see it's eyes with whole body buried in the sand.

flying gurnard..beautiful creature to sight when it spreads its wings and glides underwater,just like an eagle would in the sky.
but when wings are folded,just another fish,nothing special looking,when predator approaches,wings spread to deter and also to take flight in case too hot to handle. very weird creature,a fish who cant seem to swim,walks on the seabed or hops. or well camouflaged ,it can adapt itself to blend in with the colours of its surrounding environment.multi colored ugly yet in a fascinating way.

devil scorpion fish..venomous spines,wings spread to warn off predators,usually folds wings and takes clors of the coral head it hides in to feed on unsuspecting fishes which dont see it.

crab or ape.under a microscope observation,it looks exactly like the orang utan,even walks like it,fascinating to watch..

strange looking fish ya..?

jellyfish,inspiration for sci-fi movie..

hermit crab,it will look for another shell when it outgrows the current one it is living in,moving from shell to shell as it grows larger..hermit thru and thru.

pencil urchin,intriguing to look at, but has venomous spines,not lethal but excruciatingly painful for divers if acidentally handled.
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Venomous marine animals,be careful !

Snorkeling or scuba diving ? Following is a compilation of some very common critters that will be encountered in and around a coral reef.It is just the tip of the ice berg in venomous critters.Which is why it is a good idea to just view and not touch ,Especially if you dont know what it is.Sea urchins for example ,most arent venomous,but the ones that are ,have very potent venom that can be fatal to the unlucky person unfortunate enough to step on it or touched the spines with bare hands.

The sea urchin is nocturnal, hiding in crevasses during the day and emerging at night to feed. Sea urchins can be found in both warm and cold water.

No one in his right mind would get close to anything as spiny as a sea urchin, but walking in the water makes it easier for people to step on them. Sea Urchins have long sharp spines that penetrate very deep and sometimes break, causing severe pain and infection. In most sting cases, the spines have to be removed surgically. But sometimes it is a better idea to leave the spines alone if it isnt a severe penetration,being organic ,it will eventually dissolve into the bloodstream.
Not all Sea Urchins are venomous like the very common black spined urchins in the picture but one of the most dangerous, the Flower urchins can be deadly. It looks like its body is covered by flowers instead of thorns, but they are in fact venomous and can cause paralysis or, even worse, death. There have been several reports of people killed by Flower Urchins around Japan.

A close-up shot of a Fire Urchin reveals the bulb-tipped venomous spines, capable of inflicting intensely painful wounds on the unwary diver. As with many other sea urchins, it may be host to various commensal shrimps and snails.
         the scorpion fish and stone fish cousins , if accidentally stepped on ,have venom in their spines that can be excrutiatingly painful,and in extreme envenomation be fatal. Lion fish is pretty to look at but be careful approaching them.

Many unwary snorkellers or barefoot walker on the shallows of the shore may unintentionally step on a stone fish,or if not looking at where you grab onto while snorkelling or scuba  diving , may just as likely grab on to a scorpionfish. They are masters of camouflage,so well blended into their surroundings ,you wont even know its there.


Fire coral mishaps are among the most common among snorkellers who just dont know any better and breath hold dive down to have a closer look at, and then  grab on to the fire coral for stability.

Divers who touch or even accidentally brush against fire coral, experience a painful sting that burns like acid on the skin -- thus the name fire coral.

Marine biologists who study these kinds of organisms have discovered something that is useful to know. The nematocysts of fire coral (and their first cousins, the hydroids) are de-activated by acids. Thus, it's a very good idea for divers to include in their kits, a small container of vinegar or a few fruits of lemon or lime when they visit places where they may possibly encounter hydroids or fire coral. ( alkaline acid in their content)  A little squirt of vinegar or a few drops of lconcentrated emon juice  can stop the nematocysts that may still be stuck to the skin from firing and spare the victim a loot of pain.

Conversely, fresh water and soapy solutions actually aggravate the nematocysts. The last thing you want to do if you are stung by hydroids or fire coral is to rinse the skin with fresh water. It actually prompts any remaining nematocysts to fire.

If you are ever stung by hydroids or fire coral, you won't forget it. Usually a welt or rash arises immediately and stays for a week or more, burning again every time you take a shower or bath.

Stinging hydroids..

Hydroids look like delicate seaweeds, but they are actually animals, closely related to corals, jellyfish, sea anemones and Portuguese man-of-war.
At least 28 species of hydroids, most standing only a few inches tall, inhabit the shallow waters of the main Hawaiian Islands. They are also common along coastlines nearly everywhere else in the world. Rocks, boat bottoms, and piers often bear colonies of these delicate creatures.
The dainty appearance of these animals is deceiving. Hydroids are carnivores, using their nematocyst-laden feeding tentacles, positioned along their "branches", to sting and catch passing shrimp, worms and animal plankton.
These stinging nematocysts also discharge venom into human skin upon contact. Hydroid stings are fairly common among people who clean fouled boat bottoms. Also, scuba divers sometimes get hydroid stings by accidentally brushing up against a colony, like I did during the a diving  incident.

 Hydroids can cause other trouble. In 1955, pieces of hydroid colonies were dislodged from rocks during construction of a pier in a Harbor. Project workers, who often were standing in the water, were plagued by these drifting remnants that got caught under their clothing,resulting in stings that felt like fire ants.
Most hydroid stings almost immediately produce small red bumps that remain itchy and painful for hours. Sometime victims feel a prickly stinging sensation. This rash can last up to 10 days. Skin with hair on it usually has less reaction than bare skin. More-severe sting reactions are blisters, swelling and hives.
No cure exists. Rinse the sting with water, preferably hot, to wash away any adhering nematocysts, then apply ice for pain. For persistent itching or skin rash, try 1 percent hydrocortisone ointment four times a day, and one or two 25 milligram diphenhydramine (Benadryl) tablets every six hours. Diphenhydramine may cause drowsiness so don't drive, swim or surf after taking this medication. Both these drugs are sold without prescription.

If you encounter anything that resembles a fern like plant,dont touch it.Its actually an animal,A coral.
 Sometimes the hydroids are so filament like thin you cannot see it,Very common in rocky crevasses or on the side of old wrecks or inside swim throughs and underwater caves,Just takes a tiny graze with your bare flesh and the stinging pain will be felt instantly.

Crown of thorns

This predator starfish feeds mainly on corals,like the urchin it belongs to the starfish family,but the thorns have venom that is even though not fatal when spiked but the pain is excrutiatingly hard to bear.They like to hide away in daytime in coral nooks and crannies.


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